New boss for Camp Aldershot
From left, Maj. Troy Kennedy, Lt.-Col. Julien Richard and Maj. Brent Kerr sign change of command documents Aug. 22 at Camp Aldershot, North Kentville.
Published on August 26, 2013
Topics : Aldershot , Canada
By Sara Ericsson
It was changeover time last week at Camp Aldershot.
“This is a bittersweet moment,” said Maj. Troy Kennedy, whose term as commanding officer of Camp Aldershot ended Aug.22. “I’m giving up command of something that I care deeply about. This was the best job I’ve ever had.”
The new commander, Maj. Brent Kerr, was instated during a short ceremony.
After his introduction, Kerr spoke of how Kennedy had established a connection between with the surrounding community, and how he hoped he could continue to do so, both on a small and large scale.
“If we lose the confidence of the people of Canada, then we are lost,” he said.
Aldershot is a Land Force Atlantic Area Training Centre.
The Coloured Corps: African Canadians and the War of 1812
ARTICLE CONTENTS: Raising the Coloured Corps | The Battle of Queenston Heights | The 1813 Campaigns | Construction of Fort Mississauga | Disbandment and Legacy | African Canadians in British Service | Links to Other Sites
Blacks in Early Upper Canada
The first substantial settlement of African Canadians in UPPER CANADA occurred following the AMERICAN REVOLUTION. Some, such as Richard Pierpoint, a former slave from Africa and military veteran of Butler's Rangers, had gained their freedom under the British Crown during the late war. Most, however, were slaves, brought to the province as spoils of war or as the property of LOYALIST refugees, amounting to 700 individuals by the time Lieutenant Governor John Graves SIMCOE arrived in 1792. Simcoe wished to abolish slavery entirely, but the Legislature, concerned over the possible economic impact, opposed many of his reforms. Therefore, his Act Against Slavery, passed on 9 July 1793, was a severely limited version of his intentions; it banned the further importation of slaves into Upper Canada, but granted freedom automatically only to those born in the province. Consequently many African Canadians occupied an uneasy and caste-like status within early Upper Canadian society.
First Nations in the War of 1812
ARTICLE CONTENTS: The Emergence of Tecumseh | The War of 1812: A Turning Point | Suggested Reading | Links to Other Sites
The First Nations played a significant role in the WAR OF 1812. The peace treaty of 1783, which concluded the AMERICAN REVOLUTION, was not the first time that their British allies disappointed the First Nations. The ceding of all lands west of the Ohio River to the United States caused shock among the western tribes. The same thing had happened to the MI'KMAQ and MALISEET in the TREATY OF UTRECHT. The attempt to form some kind of coalition among the First Nations became an urgent political necessity in the face of inexorable American expansionism.
To this end, 35 nations assembled at Sandusky, in the Wyandot territory of Ohio. Joseph BRANT (Thayendanegea) was one of the leaders trying to forge an alliance, on the lines of the SIX NATIONS. The tribes discussed a looser confederacy and agreed to hold the boundary that had been established by the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768. But time and again the Americans showed that they had no intention of honouring ABORIGINAL RIGHTS. Americans assumed that by their declaration of independence they automatically acquired title to all land east of the Mississippi. In the battles that erupted, the First Nations twice defeated the Americans, but the latter rallied a large expedition and destroyed the coalition at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
In 1807, after the CHESAPEAKE AFFAIR, the British concluded that a fight with the Americans was inevitable. London instructed Governor General Sir James CRAIG to ensure the loyalty of the western First Nations. With their commitments in the NAPOLEONIC WARS raging in Europe, the British were convinced that First Nations support would be vital in an upcoming war. Despite the betrayals in the past, even the unreliable British looked preferable to the expansionist Americans.
The Emergence of Tecumseh
After the death of Brant, a new leader emerged, the Shawnee war chief TECUMSEH ("Shooting Star"). Tecumseh sided with the British not because he trusted them, but because he saw them as the lesser of two evils. In his mission, Tecumseh was linked with a religious leader, his brother TENSKWATAWA. Known as "the Prophet," Tenskwatawa's nativist religious revival prepared the way for Tecumseh's political intertribal movement. Tecumseh preached that the land belonged to all the First Nations, not to specific groups, and that no tribe had the right to surrender any land. That could only be done with the agreement of all.
Tecumseh was an imposing figure who combined a passionate concern for his people with an acute strategic military sense. His colleague Isaac BROCK declared that if Tecumseh were English he would have been a great general. During the War of 1812, some 35 tribal nations fought under Tecumseh, who worked tirelessly to gain the support of the Potawatomi, Ojibwa, Shawnee, Ottawa, Kikapoos and others. He had less success with some, notably the Creeks.
Following the depression in the fur trade after 1808, destitute First Nations turned to the British for help and the British responded generously. AMHERSTBURG became a centre for "gift distribution" of food, clothing, nets, traps, snares, guns and ammunition. Americans were convinced that the British were preparing the First Nations for war. In point of fact the British were far more interested in fostering peace and trade than in war.
In a dispute over First Nations resistance to land surveyors, the Indiana governor William Henry Harrison took advantage of Tecumseh's absence to attack Prophetstown, at the Wabash and Tippecanoe rivers. After some heavy losses from a First Nations attack, Harrison burned Prophetstown to the ground, destroyed the food supply and disinterred the bodies of the dead. Tecumseh was anxious for revenge and impatient in waiting on the British.
The War of 1812: A Turning Point
The War of 1812 was a turning point for the First Nations, being the last conflict in north-eastern North America in which their participation was important, if not critical. The First Nations were largely responsible for the fall of MICHILIMACKINAC on 17 July 1812; the surprise attack had been worked out by Tecumseh. After the victory at Michilimackinac, First Nations flocked to the British cause. Their presence with Brock at DETROIT was instrumental in the surrender on 16 August of a superior force. Tecumseh and General Brock rode side by side into the fallen fort. In turn, the fall of Detroit encourage the Six Nations, who were an important factor in the American defeat at QUEENSTON HEIGHTS on 13 October when they appeared in an auspicious moment under the leadership of John NORTON (Teyoninhokarawen).
Tecumseh's forces cut an American force to pieces at Fort Meigs, Ohio, 5 May 1813. But control was slipping away as the Americans destroyed the Creek nation. Meanwhile, an American naval victory on LAKE ERIE, 10 September, cut the British supply line to Amherstburg, thus endangering First Nations support.
The Iroquois played the central role in the BATTLE OF BEAVER DAMS, 24 June 1813. According to John Norton, "the Caughnawaga fought the battle, the Mohawk got the plunder and [British general] FITZGIBBON got the credit."
Tecumseh was unimpressed with the new British general who had succeeded Brock, Henry PROCTER. In retreat Procter decided, perhaps at Tecumseh's urging, to make a stand at MORAVIANTOWN (on the Thames River). The brunt of the fighting fell to the First Nations and they were routed and Tecumseh was killed. No one knows what happened to the great chief's body. His loss is hard to overestimate and with him went the remains of the nativist movement. Nevertheless, First Nations warriors continued to fight until the end of the war. The Americans saw an opportunity and persuaded some First Nations to join their cause, and a group of Seneca fought on the US side at CHIPPAWA 5 July 1814.
While the First Nations made valuable allies, they were not always easy for the Europeans to deal with. They had a very different philosophy of war, summed up by the great Sauk leader BLACK HAWK as "to kill the enemy and to save our own people." First Nations warriors preferred to rely on stealth and spontaneous attack. They were puzzled and sometimes appalled by European tactics and by the extreme casualties the Europeans seemed to countenance.
During negotiations for the TREATY OF GHENT, the British did try to bargain for the establishment of an Indian Territory but the Americans resolutely refused to agree. The most that they would accept was the status quo before the war. This was a profound disappointment and loss for the First Nations, since, despite all their efforts, they were unable to recover lost territory. Three years after the death of Tecumseh, Indiana became a state and began to remove all First Nations from their traditional lands.
In Canada, the War of 1812 was the end of an era in which the First Nations had been able to keep their positions in return for service in war. Soon, with the growth of Upper Canada, the First Nations were outnumbered in their own lands. It was almost forgotten that if not for their support Upper Canada might very well have fallen into American hands.
Author JAMES MARSH
Olive P. Dickason, Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times (1992).
Links to Other Sites
Canadian Aboriginal Writing and Arts Challenge
The website for the Canadian Aboriginal Writing and Arts Challenge, which features Canada's largest essay writing competition for Aboriginal youth (ages 14-29) and a companion program for those who prefer to work through painting, drawing and photography. See their guidelines, teacher resources, profiles of winners, and more. From Historica Canada.
Life of Tecumseh and of His Brother The Prophet
See a digitized online copy of an 1841 biography of Tecumseh and his brother The Prophet. Focuses on their pivotal roles as First Nations leaders in the War of 1812. See the "Table of Contents" for chapter highlights. From canadiana.org.
The story of Tecumseh
The full text of a 1912 book "The story of Tecumseh." Scroll down to page ix for a list of images of Tecumseh and scenes of various battles. Right click on some images to rotate scenes clockwise. Part of the "Canadian Heroes Series" written for younger students. Contains some outdated phrases and vernacular language. Note: a large PDF document. From the archive.org website.
Veterans of the War of 1812
View a photo of veterans of the War of 1812. From left to right: John Smoke Johnson, Jacob Warner and John Tutlee. Warner and Tutlee were two of the Iroquois warriors who encountered Laura Secord as she approached the British camp to warn of an impending American invasion. The Iroquois led her to Lieutenant Fitzgibbon, whose troops mobilized and overcame the Americans. From the Canadian Museum of Civilization.
Statement of Significance – Michigan in the War of 1812
A concise summary of the lasting impact of the War of 1812 on the development of the state of Michigan. From the Michigan Commission on the Commemoration of the Bicentennial of the War of 1812. A PDF document.
A visitors' guide for Fort Meigs, a historic US Army post in Perrysburg, Ohio. It was the location of two failed attacks led by British general Henry Proctor and Shawnee leader Tecumseh during the War of 1812. Click on "Meet the People" for more information.
The Battle of Frenchtown
A brief (American) account of the Battle of Frenchtown (Battle of the River Raisin), a bloody engagement that was a major defeat for American forces. Check the menu at the left side of the page for more information, maps, and illustrations. From the riverraisinbattlefield.org website.
British defeat spelled the end of Fort Meigs
A brief newspaper story about the military significance of the British defeat at Fort Meigs in 1813. A Niagara Falls Review article at discover1812.com.
Sose Sononsese and John Pegeon Omeme
See the Military General Service Medal awarded to Sose Sononsese and John Pegeon Omeme, two of only 103 surviving Canadian First Nations 'warriors' to receive their medal. From the National Army Museum website at the National Archives in the UK.
Ohio Archaeology Blog: Tippecanoe and Two Horses Too
An extensive description of the British attacks on Fort Meigs, Ohio, in the War of 1812. Includes details about archaeological finds unearthed at this historic site. From the Ohio Archaeology Blog.
In Their Own Words -- Aboriginal Leaders and the War of 1812
See excerpts from key speeches delivered by Tecumseh and Black Hawk to First Nations followers and British military officers during the War of 1812. From the War of 1812 Magazine.
Rural Raids and Divided Loyalties: Southwestern Ontario and the War of 1812
An account of the "Battle of Malcom's Mills," the last military action ever fought on Canadian soil against a foreign power. From the website for the Ontario Visual Heritage Project.
Leading Myths of the War of 1812
This article debunks some of the more outlandish myths about British and American achievements in the War of 1812. From the War of 1812 Magazine.
Remember the Raisin! Anatomy of a Demon Myth
This article examines historic biases and inaccuracies in American accounts and claims of British complicity in regard to supposedly unrestrained treacherous actions of First Nations warriors at the Battle of Frenchtown in the War of 1812. From the War of 1812 Magazine at napoleon-series.org. Note: contains common 19th century vernacular references.
Niagara Parks: Commemorative Plaques & Markers
See the text of individual plaques and markers commemorating the War of 1812 found throughout the grounds of Niagara Parks in Ontario. Also, check this site for more information about specific park locations and events.
The Trial of Red Jacket
An 1869 print depicting the trial of Seneca chief Red Jacket, who fought on the side of the Americans in the War of 1812. Click on the image for an enlarged view. From 1812history.com
Aboriginal People in the Canadian Military: In Defence of their Homelands
Scroll down the page for an illustrated account of how the leaders of the First Nations actively supported the British fight against American forces in the War of 1812. From the website for the Department of National Defence.
A profile of Black Hawk, a First Nations leader who supported the British side during the War of 1812. From the Black Hawk State Historic Site at Rock Island, Illinois.
The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada - Camp Aldershot
The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada is a reserve infantry ... The 2nd Canadian Highland Battalion originated in Aldershot, Nova Scotia
The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada
Volunteers have served since the regiment's inception in Montreal on January 31, 1862 as the 5th Battalion, Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada. The rise of American military strength during the Civil War concerned Canada. The government authorized formation of militia regiments. Each of six Montreal Scottish chieftains responded by raising an infantry company for the 5th Battalion. Eventually, eight companies were raised. Since then, thousands of Canadian citizens have served in the Black Watch. In addition to service during the Fenian raids, they have fought in the Great War and the Second World War; bolstered NATO operations in Europe and UN peacekeeping worldwide; and helped their fellow Canadians at home during the 1998 Ice Storm (Operation ASSISTANCE) and 2011 flooding in Quebec (Operation LOTUS).
The Black Watch is the oldest highland regiment in Canada. The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada originated in Montreal, Quebec on 31 January 1862 as the 5th Battalion Volunteer Militia Rifles, Canada. It was redesignated as the 5th Battalion, The Royal Light Infantry of Montreal on 7 November 1862, as the 5th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers on 19 November 1875. The Regiment officially became a Scottish Regiment when it was redesignated as the 5th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers on 27 February 1880. It was subsequently redesignated the 5th Battalion, Royal Scots of Canada on 29 February 1884, the 5th Regiment Royal Scots of Canada on 8 May 1900, the 5th Regiment, Royal Scots of Canada, Highlanders, on 2 May 1904, the 5th Regiment, Royal Highlanders of Canada, on 1 October 1906, the The Royal Highlanders of Canada on 29 March 1920, The Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) of Canada on 1 January 1930, finally assuming its current name, The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada on 1 July 1935. On 16 October 1953, it was amalgamated with the 1st and 2nd Canadian Highland Battalions.
The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada is a reserve infantry regiment in 34 Brigade Group, Land Force Quebec Area. The regiment is located on rue de Bleury in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and is currently commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Christopher Phare, CD. The regiment's armoury was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 2008. They are the Senior Canadian-Scottish Regiment.
Brent Fox has the brain of a fox and is brilliant, and totally military loving and prideful of Canada's service.... pure Canadian
Camp Aldershot Serving since 1904- by Brent Fox
Nova Scotia Canada
Date Listed 31-Jul-13
Last Edited 02-Aug-13
Address 37 Cornwallis Street, Kentville, NS B4N, Canada
Brent Fox, well known authority on military history covers the history of the camp from 1904 through to the 1980s. Text and pictures. 24 pages. $4.00 plus $2.00 S&H. This copy is new.
This item is sold at the Kings County Museum in Kentville. The museum is open Monday to Friday from 9-4, and Saturdays from 9-3 in the summer. For purchase of item, only cash is accepted.
The West Nova Scotia Regiment
The West Nova Scotia Regiment are a Land Force Reserve infantry regiment.
The West Nova Scotia Regiment
Headquarters: ARTC Aldershot, NS
Perpetuates: The Annapolis Regiment and The Lunenburg Regiment
Colonel in Chief: None
Regimental Birthday: October 8th
Current Role: Light Infantry
Higher Formation: 36 Canadian Brigade Group
[hide] 1 Current Information
2 Current Training
3 Uniforms and Traditions
4 Brief History
5 Battle Honours 5.1 First World War
5.2 Second World War
6 External Links
Location: Aldershot, Nova Scotia
Mailing Address: N/A
Telephone Number: (902) 678-7930 ext 2121
Recruiting Contacts: MCpl Meaden
Commanding Officer: Major T.W. Harris
Regimental Sergeant Major: CWO Lawrence
Honorary Colonel: Col Hon. John Gordon Leefe ECNS DCL
Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel: LCol E. Meisner
Honorary Commanding Offier: MGen M.P. Bogert, CBE, DSO, CD
Abbreviation/Regimental Short Title: The official abbreviation as used in military correspondence, and worn on the shoulder title, is West NS Regt
Higher Formation: The West Nova Scotia Regiment are just one unit of 36 Canadian Brigade Group, headquartered in Halifax and including all Reserve Army units throughout the province. The Brigade is part of Land Force Atlantic Area.
OBUA Trailing, November 2005.
Uniforms and Traditions
Regimental March (Quick Time): "God Bless the Prince Of Wales"
Regimental March (Slow Time): "Garb of Auld Gaul"
Motto: Semper Fidelis (Latin for Always Faithful).
Within an annulus surmounted by the Crown and inscribed WEST NOVA SCOTIA REGIMENT and SEMPER FIDELIS, a shield bearing St. Andrew's Cross, cantoned; in chief, a church and the statue of Evangeline; in base, a fishing schooner; in flanks, a Mayflower; below the annulus a scroll inscribed CANADA, the whole superimposed on an eight pointed sunburst.
Regimental Alliance: The Queen's Lancashire Regiment, Preston, England
The West Nova Scotia Regiment (West NSR) is one of the oldest regiments on the Canadian Militia List. The Regiment was formed from both the 69th Annapolis Regiment (1717), and the 75th Lunenburg Regiment, (1870) in 1936. Both regiments descended from the 40th Regiment of Foot, the Prince of wales Volunteers, which was raised on the 23rd of August, 1717 at Fort Anne, Annapolis Royal, NS.
When World War II broke out on the 1st day of September 1939, the West NSR was mobilized as an active service force battalion. The active service battalion left Halifax and disembarked at Gourock, Scotland shortly after Christmas in 1939; they immediately entrained for Aldershot, England. On June 15, 1943 the regiment embarked from England, in the first part of "Operation Husky" the invasion of Sicily. The West Nova Scotia Regiment was the first allied unit to land and stay on the continent of Eurcpe for the entire duration of the war.
The Regiment continued to fight in Italy until February 9, 1945, when LCol Hiltz received orders informing him that the ist Canadian Corps would be transferred from Italy to Northwest Europe. The Regiment moved to Marseilles, France, by sea and arrived in Holland until the German surrender on May 5, 1945. During this time the Regiment won twenty six theatre and battle honours, in addition to the Distinguished Service Order, the Military Cross, Distinguished Conduct Medal and many others. From Sicily to Holland there are 352 graves of West Novas who paid the final sacrifice during the war. There were also 1084 wounded and missing.
Since World War Ii the West Nova Scotia Regiment has been a unit of the Canadian Armed Force - reserves. it has contributed soldiers to UN peace keeping tours in countries such as the former Yugoslavia, Cyprus and the Middle East. Our soldiers have participated in continuous unit training and individually in bases across Canada, United States and Great Britain.
32 total, including the combined battle honours of The Annapolis Regiment and The Lunenburg Regiment.
First World War
ARRAS, 1917, '18
PURSUIT TO MONS
Second World War
LANDING IN SICILY
Landing at Reggio
San Martino-San Lorenzo
Castel di Sangro
NORTH-WEST EUROPE 1945
The battle honours in bold print are borne on the Regimental Colour.
Kings County Museum
old kings county courthouse museum
Kings County Vignettes
The Battle of Blomidon
The History and Geography of Nova Scotia by John B. Calkin, published in 1878, has
a chapter on the American Revolution (1775-1783). In the paragraph "Nova Scotia
During the War" he states:"During the war the coast settlements were kept in
constant alarm by privateers fitted out in New England. Yarmouth, Annapolis,
Cornwallis, Lunenburg, and other places were plundered. Two armed vessels came
up Annapolis Basin. The invaders seized the block-house, spiked the cannon, and
then loaded their vessels with whatever they found of value in the houses and
shops. A militia force from Cornwallis captured a privateer in the Bay of Fundy, and
brought in the crew as prisoners." (pp.148-149).
A History of Nova Scotia or Acadie by Beamish Murdock, Esq. Q.C. , published in
1886, has a chapter on the part Nova Scotia played in the American Revolutionary
War. He has this statement: "All persons were called upon to swear allegiance. Light
infantry companies were directed to be formed."
Following this is a list of all centers in the province, and states that Cornwallis and
Horton each had fifty men ready to protect the area.
The following poem given to Kings Historical Society by Ms. Belle Belcher Robinson
refers to Benjamin Belcher who was born in Gibraltar in 1743 and died in Cornwallis
in 1802. Others mentioned in the poem -- Amos Sheffield, Will Bishop and Jonathan
Crane -- are well known in the history of Cornwallis and Horton.
THE BATTLE OF BLOMIDON May 21, 1781
Marauders from Maine on our shores made a swoop;
The cannon were seven that spoke from their sloop;
And hands that were greedy clutched gladly upon
A ship Amos Sheffield had filled for Saint John.
Their sally was smashed in ten minutes or sooner;
Yanks captured Will Bishop and Jonathan Crane
And all of their party who struggled in vain.
Thus loaded with loot and captives galore,
Three vessels set out from Cornwallis shore,
Then Benjamin Belcher, once born at Gibraltar,
Was fit to be tied in an over-sized halter;
He learned where a vessel with guns might be got,
And rode like a madman to Horton Town Plot.
We were twenty-eight strong in the schooner SUCCESS,
Militiamen bold who with Belcher did press
By horse out to Horton and clambered on board,
And sailed on the track of our foe-men abhorred.
The season was May and the orchards were white;
It seemed a grand day for a wonderful fight.
With the tide running in, they were caught at the Cape;
We hammered their sloop, and in haste to escape
Some took to their dories and scrambled to land
While others lay dead in the ship they had manned.
Still slowed by the tide was the schooner they'd taken
And this by its captors was quickly forsaken,
And promptly Will Bishop and Jonathan Crane
Discomfit their guards and a victory gain.
Thus over the Basin by noon we withdrew
With three captured ships and our jubilant crew.
"The blow that we struck at the Cape was a squelcher!"
Remarked our stout commodore, Benjamin Belcher.
Old Kings Couty Courthouse Museum
FOLKS IN CANADA IT'S ALWAYS BEEN ABOUT RELIGION- we ROMAN CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS..... fight over religion- sound familiar since 1600s
Military history of Nova Scotia
Battle of Port Royal
Conquest of Acadia
Battle of Jeddore Harbour
Northeast Coast Campaign
Battle of Grand Pré
Bay of Fundy Campaign
Fall of Louisbourg
Headquarters established for Royal Navy's North American Station
Burying the Hatchet ceremony
Battle of Fort Cumberland
Raid on Lunenburg
Halifax Impressment Riot
Establishment of New Ireland
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Battle at the Great Redan
Siege of Lucknow
CSS Tallahassee Escape
Departing Halifax for Northwest Rebellion
Departing Halifax for the Boer War
Imprisonment of Leon Trotsky
Jewish Legion formed
Battle of the St. Lawrence
Sinking of the SS Point Pleasant Park
Halifax VE-Day Riot
Wheelchair accessible bus invented
Nova Scotia Captivity Narratives
40th Regiment of Foot
Troupes de la marine
84th Regiment of Foot, 2nd Battalion
Royal Fencible American Regiment
Royal Nova Scotia Regiment
Impressment in Nova Scotia
West Nova Scotia Regiment
The Nova Scotia Highlanders
Cape Breton Highlanders
The Halifax Rifles (RCAC)
1st (Halifax-Dartmouth) Field Artillery Regiment
The Princess Louise Fusiliers
Portal icon Nova Scotia portal
Portal icon History of Canada portal
Portal icon Canadian Armed Forces portal
Nova Scotia (also known as Mi'kma'ki and Acadia) is a Canadian province located in Canada's Maritimes. The region was initially occupied by Mi'kmaq. During the first 150 years of European settlement, the colony was primarily made up of Catholic Acadians, Maliseet and Mi'kmaq. During this time period, there were six colonial wars that took place in Nova Scotia over a seventy-five year period (see the French and Indian Wars as well as Father Rale's War and Father Le Loutre's War). After agreeing to several peace treaties, the seventy-five year period of war ended with the Burial of the Hatchet Ceremony between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761) and two years later when the British defeated the French in North America (1763). During these wars, Acadians, Mi'kmaq and Maliseet from the region fought to protect the border of Acadia from New England. They fought the war on two fronts: the southern border of Acadia, which New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. The other front was in Nova Scotia and involved preventing New Englanders from taking the capital of Acadia, Port Royal (See Queen Anne's War), establishing themselves at Canso (See Father Rale's War) and founding Halifax (see Father Le Loutre's War).
During the French and Indian War, Halifax was established as the British Headquarters of the North American Station (see Royal Naval Dockyard, Halifax). As a result Nova Scotia was active throughout the American Revolution and the War of 1812. Nova Scotians also played prominent roles in the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny.
[hide] 1 Seventeenth century 1.1 Port Royal established
1.2 Scottish and French Conflict
1.3 Acadian Civil War
1.4 Wabanaki Confederacy
1.5 King William's War
2 Eighteenth century 2.1 Queen Anne's War
2.2 40th Regiment of Foot
2.3 Father Rale's War
2.4 King George's War
2.5 Father Le Loutre's War
2.6 French and Indian War 2.6.1 British deportation campaigns 220.127.116.11 Bay of Fundy (1755)
18.104.22.168 Cape Sable
22.214.171.124 Ile St. Jean and Ile Royale
126.96.36.199 Petitcodiac River Campaign
188.8.131.52 St. John River Campaign
184.108.40.206 Gulf of St. Lawrence Campaign
2.6.2 Acadian, Maliseet and Mi’kmaq resistance 220.127.116.11 Annapolis (Fort Anne)
18.104.22.168 Piziquid (Fort Edward)
22.214.171.124 Chignecto (Fort Cumberland)
2.7 Bury the Hatchet Ceremony
2.8 Headquarters of the North American Station
2.9 American Revolution
3 Nineteenth century 3.1 Napoleonic Wars 3.1.1 Halifax Impressment Riot
3.2 War of 1812
3.3 Crimean War
3.4 Indian Mutiny
3.5 American Civil War
3.6 North West Rebellion
4 Twentieth century 4.1 Second Boer War
4.2 First World War
4.3 Second World War
4.4 Korean War
5 Notable Nova Scotian military figures 5.1 17th-18th centuries 5.1.1 See also
5.2 19th century
5.3 20th century
5.4 Nova Scotian Victoria Cross Recipients
6 See also
9 External links
Seventeenth century[edit source]
Port Royal established[edit source]
Main article: Habitation at Port-Royal
The first European settlement in Nova Scotia was established in 1605. The French, led by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts established the first capital for the colony Acadia at Port Royal, Nova Scotia. Other than a few trading posts around the province, for the next seventy-five years, Port Royal was virtually the only European settlement in Nova Scotia. Port Royal (later renamed Annapolis Royal) remained the capital of Acadia and later Nova Scotia for almost 150 years, prior to the founding of Halifax in 1749.
Approximately seventy-five years after Port Royal was founded, Acadians migrated from the capital and established what would become the other major Acadian settlements before the Expulsion of the Acadians: Grand Pré, Chignecto, Cobequid and Pisiguit.
Until the Conquest of Acadia, the English made six attempts to conquer Acadia by defeating the capital. They finally defeated the French in the Siege of Port Royal in 1710. Over the following fifty years, the French and their allies made six unsuccessful military attempts to regain the capital.
Scottish and French Conflict[edit source]
From 1629-1632, Nova Scotia briefly became a Scottish colony. Sir William Alexander of Menstrie Castle, Scotland claimed mainland Nova Scotia and settled at Port Royal, while Ochiltree claimed Ile Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island) and settled at Baleine, Nova Scotia. There were three battles between the Scottish and the French: the Raid on St. John (1632), the Siege of Baleine (1629) as well as Siege of Cap de Sable (present-day Port La Tour, Nova Scotia) (1630). Nova Scotia was returned to France through a treaty.
The French quickly defeated the Scottish at Baleine and established settlements on Ile Royale at present day Englishtown (1629) and St. Peter's (1630). These two settlements remained the only settlements on the island until they were abandoned by Nicolas Denys in 1659. Ile Royale then remained vacant for more than fifty years until the communities were re-established when Louisbourg was established in 1713.
Acadian Civil War[edit source]
Main article: Acadian Civil War
Siege of St. John (1745) - d'Aulnay defeats La Tour in Acadia
Acadia was plunged into what some historians have described as a civil war between 1640–1645. The war was between Port Royal, where Governor of Acadia Charles de Menou d'Aulnay de Charnisay was stationed, and present-day Saint John, New Brunswick, where Governor of Acadia. Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour was stationed.
In the war, there were four major battles. la Tour attacked d'Aulnay at Port Royal in 1640. In response to the attack, D'Aulnay sailed out of Port Royal to establish a five month blockade of La Tour's fort at Saint John, which La Tour eventually defeated (1643). La Tour attacked d'Aulnay again at Port Royal in 1643. d'Aulnay and Port Royal ultimately won the war against La Tour with the 1645 siege of Saint John. After d'Aulnay died (1650), La Tour re-established himself in Acadia.
Marker commemorating the Dutch conquest of Acadia (1674), which they renamed New Holland. This is the spot where Jurriaen Aernoutsz buried a bottle at the capital of Acadia, Fort Pentagouet, Castine, Maine
In 1674, the Dutch briefly conquered Acadia, renaming the colony New Holland.
Wabanaki Confederacy[edit source]
In response to King Phillips War in New England (which included the first military conflict between the Mi'kmaq and New England), the Mi'kmaq and Maliseet people from this region joined the Wabanaki Confederacy to form a political and military alliance with New France. The Mi'kmaq and Maliseet were very significant military allies to New France through six wars.
King William's War[edit source]
During King William's War, the Mi'kmaq, Acadians and Maliseet participated in defending Acadia at its border with New England, which New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. Toward this end, the Maliseet from their headquarters at Meductic on the Saint John River, joined the New France expedition against present-day Bristol, Maine (the Siege of Pemaquid (1689)), Salmon Falls and present-day Portland, Maine. In response, the New Englanders retaliated by attacking Port Royal and present-day Guysborough. In 1694, the Maliseet participated in the Raid on Oyster River at present-day Durham, New Hampshire. Two years later, New France, led by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, returned and fought a naval battle in the Bay of Fundy before moving on to raid Bristol, Maine again. In retaliation, the New Englanders, led by Benjamin Church, engaged in a Raid on Chignecto (1696) and the siege of the Capital of Acadia at Fort Nashwaak. After the Siege of Pemaquid (1696), d'Iberville led a force of 124 Canadians, Acadians, Mi'kmaq and Abanakis in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign. They destroyed almost every Engish settlement in Newfoundland, over 100 English were killed, many times that number captured, and almost 500 deported to England or France.
At the end of the war England returned the territory to France in the Treaty of Ryswick and the borders of Acadia remained the same.
Eighteenth century[edit source]
Queen Anne's War[edit source]
During Queen Anne's War, the Mi'kmaq, Acadians and Maliseet participated again in defending Acadia at its border against New England. They made numerous raids on New England settlements along the border in the Northeast Coast Campaign, the most famous being the Raid on Deerfield. In retaliation, Major Benjamin Church went on his fifth and final expedition to Acadia. He raided present-day Castine, Maine and then continued on by conducting raids against Grand Pre, Pisiquid and Chignecto. A few years later, defeated in the Siege of Pemaquid (1696), Captain March made an unsuccessful siege on the Capital of Acadia, Port Royal (1707). The New Englanders were successful with the Siege of Port Royal (1710), while the Wabanaki Conferacy were successful in the nearby Battle of Bloody Creek in 1711.
During Queen Anne's War, the Conquest of Acadia (1710) was confirmed by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. Acadia was defined as mainland-Nova Scotia by the French. Present-day New Brunswick and most of Maine remained contested territory, while New England conceded present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton Island, which France quickly renamed Île St Jean and Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) respectively. On the latter island, the French established a fortress at Louisbourg to guard the sea approaches to Quebec.
40th Regiment of Foot[edit source]
The 40th Regiment of Foot was the first British regiment to be raised in Nova Scotia and was commanded directly by four consecutive Governors of Nova Scotia over a period of forty-two years. The regiment was raised by General Richard Philipps in August 1717 out of independent companies stationed in North America and the West Indies. The Regiment was first known as Philipp's regiment (1717-1749), Cornwallis' Regiment (1749-1752). In 1751, the regiment was numbered the "40th Regiment of Foot" and became known as 40th Hopson's Regiment (1752-1759). The 40th fought through Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre's War and then the French and Indian War.
Father Rale's War[edit source]
During the excalation that proceeded Father Rale's War (1722–1725), Mi'kmaq raided the new fort at Canso, Nova Scotia (1720). Under potential siege, in May 1722, Lieutenant Governor John Doucett took 22 Mi'kmaq hostage at Annapolis Royal to prevent the capital from being attacked. In July 1722 the Abenaki and Mi'kmaq created a blockade of Annapolis Royal, with the intent of starving the capital. The natives captured 18 fishing vessels and prisoners from present-day Yarmouth to Canso. They also seized prisoners and vessels from the Bay of Fundy.
Duc d'Anville Expedition: Action between HMS Nottingham and the Mars.
As a result of the escalating conflict, Massachusetts Governor Samuel Shute officially declared war on July 22, 1722. The first battle of Father Rale's War happened in the Nova Scotia theatre. In response to the blockade of Annapolis Royal, at the end of July 1722, New England launched a campaign to end the blockade and retrieve over 86 New England prisoners taken by the natives. One of these operations resulted in the Battle at Jeddore. The next was a raid on Canso in 1723.
The worst moment of the war for the capital came in early July 1724 when a group of sixty Mikmaq and Maliseets raided Annapolis Royal. They killed and scalped a sergeant and a private, wounded four more soldiers, and terrorized the village. They also burned houses and took prisoners. The British responded by executing one of the Mi'kmaq hostages on the same spot the sergeant was killed. They also burned three Acadian houses in retaliation.
As a result of the raid, three blockhouses were built to protect the town. The Acadian church was moved closer to the fort so that it could be more easily monitored.
In 1725, sixty Abenakis and Mi'kmaq launched another attack on Canso, destroying two houses and killing six people.
The treaty that ended the war marked a significant shift in European relations with the Mi'kmaq and Maliseet. For the first time a European Empire formally acknowledged that its dominion over Nova Scotia would have to be negotiated with the region's indigenous inhabitants. The treaty was invoked as recently as 1999 in the Donald Marshall case.
King George's War[edit source]
Siege of Louisbourg (1745) by Peter Monamy
News of war declarations reached the French fortress at Louisbourg first, on May 3, 1744, and the forces there wasted little time in beginning hostilities. Concerned about their overland supply lines to Quebec, they first raided the British fishing port of Canso on May 23, and then organized an attack on Annapolis Royal, then the capital of Nova Scotia. However, French forces were delayed in departing Louisbourg, and their Mi'kmaq and Maliseet allies decided to attack on their own in early July. Annapolis had received news of the war declaration, and was somewhat prepared when the Indians began besieging Fort Anne. Lacking heavy weapons, the Indians withdrew after a few days. Then, in mid-August, a larger French force arrived before Fort Anne, but was also unable to mount an effective attack or siege against the garrison, which was relieved by the New Engand company of Gorham's Rangers. In 1745, British colonial forces conducted the Siege of Port Toulouse (St. Peter's) and then captured Fortress Louisbourg after a siege of six weeks. France launched a major expedition to recover Acadia in 1746. Beset by storms, disease, and finally the death of its commander, the Duc d'Anville, it returned to France in tatters without reaching its objective.
Father Le Loutre's War[edit source]
Fort Edward (built 1750). The oldest blockhouse in North America.
Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. To prevent the establishment of Protestant settlements in the region, Mi'kmaq raided the early British settlements of present-day Shelburne (1715) and Canso (1720). A generation later, Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq (1726), which were signed after Father Rale's War. The British quickly began to build other settlements. To guard against Mi'kmaq, Acadian and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax (Citadel Hill) (1749), Bedford (Fort Sackville) (1749), Dartmouth (1750), Lunenburg (1753) and Lawrencetown (1754). There were numerous Mi'kmaq and Acadian raids on these villages such as the Raid on Dartmouth (1751).
Within 18 months of establishing Halifax, the British also took firm control of peninsula Nova Scotia by building fortifications in all the major Acadian communities: present-day Windsor (Fort Edward); Grand Pre (Fort Vieux Logis) and Chignecto (Fort Lawrence). (A British fort already existed at the other major Acadian centre of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. Cobequid remained without a fort.) There were numerous Mi'kmaq and Acadian raids on these fortifications such as the Siege of Grand Pre.
French and Indian War[edit source]
St. John River Campaign: Raid on Grimrose (present day Gagetown, New Brunswick). This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians
The final colonial war was the French and Indian War. The British Conquest of Acadia happened in 1710. Over the next forty-five years the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. During this time period Acadians participated in various militia operations against the British and maintained vital supply lines to the French Fortress of Louisbourg and Fort Beausejour.
During the French and Indian War, the British sought to neutralize any military threat Acadians posed and to interrupt the vital supply lines Acadians provided to Louisbourg by deporting Acadians from Acadia.
The British began the Expulsion of the Acadians with the Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755). Over the next nine years over 12,000 Acadians were removed from Nova Scotia. During the various campaigns of the expulsion, the Acadian and Native resistance to the British intensified.
British deportation campaigns[edit source]
Bay of Fundy (1755)[edit source]
Sambro Island Lighthouse - oldest lighthouse in North America (1758)
Main article: Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755)
The first wave of the expulsion began on August 10, 1755, with the Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755) during the French and Indian War. The British ordered the expulsion of the Acadians after the Battle of Beausejour (1755). The Campaign started at Chignecto and then quickly moved to Grand Pre, Piziquid (Falmouth/ Windsor, Nova Scotia) and finally Annapolis Royal.
On November 17, 1755, during the Bay of Fundy Campaign at Chignecto, George Scott took 700 troops and attacked twenty houses at Memramcook. They arrested the Acadians who remained and killed two hundred head of livestock, to deprive the French of supplies. Many Acadians tried to escape the Expulsion by retreating to St. John and Petitcodiac rivers, and the Miramichi in New Brunswick. The British cleared the Acadians from these areas in the later campaigns of Petitcodiac River, St. John River, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1758.
Cape Sable[edit source]
Cape Sable included Port La Tour and the surrounding area (a much larger area than simply Cape Sable Island). In April 1756, Major Preble and his New England troops, on their return to Boston, raided a settlement near Port La Tour and captured 72 men, women and children.
In the late summer of 1758, Major Henry Fletcher led the 35th regiment and a company of Gorham's Rangers to Cape Sable. He cordoned off the cape and sent his men through it. One hundred Acadians and Father Jean Baptistee de Gray surrendered, while about 130 Acadians and seven Mi'kmaq escaped. The Acadian prisoners were taken to Georges Island in Halifax Harbour.
En route to the St. John River Campaign in September 1758, Moncton sent Major Roger Morris, in command of two men-of-war and transport ships with 325 soldiers, to deport more Acadians. On October 28, his troops sent the women and children to Georges Island. The men were kept behind and forced to work with troops to destroy their village. On October 31, they were also sent to Halifax. In the spring of 1759, Joseph Gorham and his rangers arrived to take prisoner the remaining 151 Acadians. They reached Georges Island with them on June 29.
Ile St. Jean and Ile Royale[edit source]
Main article: Ile Saint-Jean Campaign
The second wave of the Deportation began with the French defeat at the Siege of Louisbourg (1758). Thousands of Acadians were deported from Ile Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and Ile Royale (Cape Breton). The Ile Saint-Jean Campaign resulted in the largest percentage of deaths of the Acadians deported. The highest single event total of fatalities during the Deportation occurred with the sinking of the Violet, with about 280 persons aboard, and the Duke William, with over 360 persons aboard. By the time the second wave of the expulsion had begun, the British had discarded their policy of relocating the Catholic, French-speaking colonists to the Thirteen Colonies. They deported them directly to France. In 1758, hundreds of Ile Royale Acadians fled to one of Boishebert's refugee camps south of Baie des Chaleurs.
Petitcodiac River Campaign[edit source]
Main article: Petitcodiac River Campaign
This was a series of British military operations from June to November 1758 to deport the Acadians who either lived along the river or had taken refuge there from earlier deportation operations, such as the Ile Saint-Jean Campaign. Benoni Danks and Joseph Gorham's Rangers carried out the operation.
Contrary to Governor Lawrence's direction, New England Ranger Danks engaged in frontier warfare against the Acadians. On July 1, 1758, Danks himself began to pursue the Acadians on the Petiticodiac. They arrived at present day Moncton and Danks’ Rangers ambushed about thirty Acadians, who were led by Joseph Broussard (Beausoleil). Many were driven into the river, three of them were killed and scalped, and others were captured. Broussard was seriously wounded. Danks reported that the scalps were Mi’kmaq and received payment for them. Thereafter, he went down in local lore as “one of the most reckless and brutal” of the Rangers.
St. John River Campaign[edit source]
Main article: St. John River Campaign
Colonel Robert Monckton led a force of 1150 British soldiers to destroy the Acadian settlements along the banks of the Saint John River until they reached the largest village of Sainte-Anne des Pays-Bas (present day Fredericton, New Brunswick) in February 1759. Monckton was accompanied by New England Rangers led by Joseph Goreham, Captain Benoni Danks, Moses Hazen and George Scott. The British started at the bottom of the river with raiding Kennebecais and Managoueche (City of St. John), where the British built Fort Frederick. Then they moved up the river and raided Grimross (Gagetown, New Brunswick), Jemseg, and finally they reached Sainte-Anne des Pays-Bas.
Contrary to Governor Lawrence's direction, New England Ranger Lieutenant Hazen engaged in frontier warfare against the Acadians in what has become known as the "Ste Anne's Massacre". On 18 February 1759, Lieutenant Hazen and about fifteen men arrived at Sainte-Anne des Pays-Bas. The Rangers pillaged and burned the village of 147 buildings, two Mass-houses, besides all the barns and stables. The Rangers burned a large store-house, and with a large quantity of hay, wheat, peas, oats, etc., killing 212 horses, about 5 head of cattle, a large number of hogs and so forth. They also burned the church (located just west of Old Government House, Fredericton).
As well, the rangers tortured and scalped six Acadians and took six prisoners. There is a written record of one of the Acadian survivors Joseph Godin-Bellefontaine. He reported that the Rangers restrained him and then massacred his family in front of him. There are other primary sources that support his assertions.
Gulf of St. Lawrence Campaign[edit source]
Main article: Gulf of St. Lawrence Campaign (1758)
Raid on Miramichi Bay - Burnt Church Village by Captain Hervey Smyth (1758)
In the Gulf of St. Lawrence Campaign (also known as the Gaspee Expedition), British forces raided French villages along present-day New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula coast of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Sir Charles Hardy and Brigadier-General James Wolfe commanded the naval and military forces, respectively. After the Siege of Louisbourg (1758), Wolfe and Hardy led a force of 1500 troops in nine vessels to the Gaspé Bay arriving there on September 5. From there they dispatched troops to Miramichi Bay (Sept. 12), Grande-Rivière, Quebec and Pabos (Sept. 13), and Mont-Louis, Quebec (Sept. 14). Over the following weeks, Sir Charles Hardy took four sloops or schooners, destroyed about 200 fishing vessels, and took about 200 prisoners.
The Acadians took refuge along the Baie des Chaleurs and the Restigouche River. Boishébert had a refugee camp at Petit-Rochelle (which was located perhaps near present-day Pointe-à-la-Croix, Quebec). The year after the Battle of Restigouche, in late 1761, Captain Roderick Mackenzie and his force captured over 330 Acadians at Boishebert's camp.
Monument to Imprisoned Acadians on Georges Island (background), Bishops Landing, Halifax
After the French conquered St. John's, Newfoundland in June 1762, the success galvanized both the Acadians and Natives. They began gathering in large numbers at various points throughout the province and behaving in a confident and, according to the British,"insolent fashion". Officials were especially alarmed when Natives concentrated close to the two principal towns in the province, Halifax and Lunenburg, where there were also large groups of Acadians. The government organized an expulsion of 1300 people, shipping them to Boston. The government of Massachusetts refused the Acadians permission to land and sent them back to Halifax.
Before the deportation, Acadian population was estimated at 14,000 Acadians. Most were deported. Some Acadians escaped to Quebec, or hid among the Mi'kmaq or in the countryside, to avoid deportation until the situation settled down.
The war ended and Britain had gained control over the entire Maritime region.
Acadian, Maliseet and Mi’kmaq resistance[edit source]
During the expulsion, French Officer Charles Deschamps de Boishébert led the Mi'kmaq and the Acadians in a guerrilla war against the British. According to Louisbourg account books, by late 1756, the French had regularly dispensed supplies to 700 Natives. From 1756 to the fall of Louisbourg in 1758, the French made regular payments to Chief Jean-Baptiste Cope and other natives for British scalps.
Annapolis (Fort Anne)[edit source]
Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot
The Acadians and Mi’kmaq fought in the Annapolis region. They were victorious in the Battle of Bloody Creek (1757). Acadians being deported from Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia on the ship Pembroke rebelled against the British crew, took over the ship and sailed to land.
In December 1757, while cutting firewood near Fort Anne, John Weatherspoon was captured by Indians (presumably Mi'kmaq) and carried away to the mouth of the Miramichi River. From there he was eventually sold or traded to the French and taken to Quebec, where he was held until late in 1759 and the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, when General Wolfe's forces prevailed (See Journal of John Witherspoon, Annapolis Royal) .
About 50 or 60 Acadians who escaped the initial deportation are reported to have made their way to the Cape Sable region (which included south western Nova Scotia). From there, they participated in numerous raids on Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.
Piziquid (Fort Edward)[edit source]
In the April 1757, a band of Acadian and Mi'kmaq raided a warehouse near Fort Edward, killing thirteen British soldiers. After loading with what provisions they could carry, they set fire to the building.
Chignecto (Fort Cumberland)[edit source]
The Acadians and Mi’kmaq also resisted in the Chignecto region. They were victorious in the Battle of Petitcodiac (1755). In the spring of 1756, a wood-gathering party from Fort Monckton (former Fort Gaspareaux), was ambushed and nine were scalped. In the April 1757, after raiding Fort Edward, the same band of Acadian and Mi'kmaq partisans raided Fort Cumberland, killing and scalping two men and taking two prisoners. July 20, 1757 Mi'kmaq killed 23 and captured two of Gorham's rangers outside Fort Cumberland near present-day Jolicure, New Brunswick. In March 1758, forty Acadian and Mi'kmaq attacked a schooner at Fort Cumberland and killed its master and two sailors. In the winter of 1759, the Mi'kmaq ambushed five British soldiers on patrol while they were crossing a bridge near Fort Cumberland. They were ritually scalped and their bodies mutilated as was common in frontier warfare. During the night of 4 April 1759, using canoes, a force of Acadians and French captured the transport. At dawn they attacked the ship Moncton and chased it for five hours down the Bay of Fundy. Although the Moncton escaped, it’s crew suffered one killed and two wounded.
Others resisted during the St. John River Campaign and the Petitcodiac River Campaign.
By June 1757, the settlers had to be withdrawn completely from the settlement of Lawrencetown (established 1754) because the number of Indian raids eventually prevented settlers from leaving their houses.
In nearby Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, in the spring of 1759, there was another Mi'kmaq attack on Fort Clarence (located at the present day Dartmouth Refinery), in which five soldiers were killed.
In present-day Maine, the Mi’kmaq and the Maliseet raided numerous New England villages. At the end of April 1755, they raided Gorham, Maine, killing two men and a family. Next they appeared in New-Boston (Gray) and through the neighbouring towns destroying the plantations. On May 13, they raided Frankfort (Dresden), where two men were killed and a house burned. The same day they raided Sheepscot (Newcastle), and took five prisoners. Two were killed in North Yarmouth on May 29 and one taken captive. They shot one person at Teconnet. They took prisoners at Fort Halifax; two prisoners taken at Fort Shirley (Dresden). They took two captive at New Gloucester as they worked on the local fort.
On 13 August 1758 Boishebert left Miramichi, New Brunswick with 400 soldiers, including Acadians which he led from Port Toulouse. They marched to Fort St George (Thomaston, Maine) and Munduncook (Friendship, Maine). While the former siege was unsuccessful, in the latter raid on Munduncook, they wounded eight British settlers and killed others. This was Boishébert’s last Acadian expedition. From there, Boishebert and the Acadians went to Quebec and fought in the Battle of Quebec (1759).
Raid on Lunenburg (1756) by Donald A. Mackay
The Acadians and Mi'kmaq raided the Lunenburg settlement nine times over a three year period during the war. Boishebert ordered the first Raid on Lunenburg (1756). Following the raid of 1756, in 1757, there was a raid on Lunenburg in which six people from the Brissang family were killed. The following year, March 1758, there was a raid on the Lunenburg Peninsula at the Northwest Range (present-day Blockhouse, Nova Scotia) when five people were killed from the Ochs and Roder families. By the end of May 1758, most of those on the Lunenburg Peninsula abandoned their farms and retreated to the protection of the fortifications around the town of Lunenburg, losing the season for sowing their grain. For those that did not leave their farms for the town, the number of raids intensified.
During the summer of 1758, there were four raids on the Lunenburg Peninsula. On 13 July 1758, one person on the LaHave River at Dayspring was killed and another seriously wounded by a member of the Labrador family. The next raid happened at Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia on 24 August 1758, when eight Mi'kmaq attacked the family homes of Lay and Brant. While they killed three people in the raid, the Mi'kmaq were unsuccessful in taking their scalps, which was the common practice for payment from the French. Two days, later, two soldiers were killed in a raid on the blockhouse at LaHave, Nova Scotia. Almost two weeks later, on 11 September, a child was killed in a raid on the Northwest Range. Another raid happened on 27 March 1759, in which three members of the Oxner family were killed. The last raid happened on 20 April 1759. The Mi’kmaq killed four settlers at Lunenburg who were members of the Trippeau and Crighton families.
On 2 April 1756, Mi'kmaq received payment from the Governor of Quebec for 12 British scalps taken at Halifax. Acadian Pierre Gautier, son of Joseph-Nicolas Gautier, led Mi’kmaq warriors from Louisbourg on three raids against Halifax in 1757. In each raid, Gautier took prisoners or scalps or both. The last raid happened in September and Gautier went with four Mi’kmaq and killed and scalped two British men at the foot of Citadel Hill. (Pierre went on to participate in the Battle of Restigouche.) 
In July 1759, Mi'kmaq and Acadians kill five British in Dartmouth, opposite McNabb's Island.
Bury the Hatchet Ceremony[edit source]
After agreeing to several peace treaties, the seventy-five year period of war ended with the Burial of the Hatchet Ceremony between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761). (In commemoration of these treaties, Nova Scotians annually celebrate Treaty Day on October 1.)
Headquarters of the North American Station[edit source]
Main article: Royal Naval Dockyard, Halifax
Halifax: Royal Navy's North American Station headquarters (1797)
Halifax was the headquarters for the Royal Navy's North American Station for sixty years (1758-1818). Halifax Harbour had served as a Royal Navy seasonal base from the founding of the city in 1749, using temporary facilities and a careening beach on Georges Island. Land and buildings for a permanent Naval Yard were purchased in 1758 and the Yard was officially commissioned in 1759. Land and buildings for a permanent Naval Yard were purchased by the Royal Naval Dockyard, Halifax in 1758 and the Yard was officially commissioned in 1759. The Yard served as the main base for the British Royal Navy in North American during the Seven Years' War, the American Revolution, the French Revolutionary Wars and the War of 1812. In 1818 Halifax became the summer base for the squadron which shifted to the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda for the remainder of the year. One of the most famous commanders of the station was Robert Digby (1781–1783) . After the surrender of New York city in 1783, Digby helped to organise the evacuation of some 1,500 United Empire Loyalists to the small port of Conway in Nova Scotia. The settlement he led transformed the tiny village into a town, which in 1787 was renamed Digby, Nova Scotia.
American Revolution[edit source]
Naval battle off Cape Breton (1781)
Until the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, Nova Scotia's New England-born merchants often sympathize with the rebels in the 13 colonies. But the Nova Scotia government was controlled by an Anglo-European mercantile elite for whom loyalty was more profitable than rebellion. The Yankees remained neutral during the war but experienced a religious revival that expressed some of their anxieties.
Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by raiding many of the coastal communities. There were constant attacks by American privateers, such as the Raid on Lunenburg (1782), numerous raids on Liverpool, Nova Scotia (October 1776, March 1777, September 1777, May 1778, September 1780) and a raid on Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia (1781).
American Privateers also raided Canso, Nova Scotia (1775). In 1779, American privateers returned to Canso and destroyed the fisheries, which were worth £50,000 a year to Britain.
To guard against such attacks, the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) was garrisoned at forts around the Atlantic Canada. Fort Edward (Nova Scotia) in Windsor, Nova Scotia was the Regiment's headquarters to prevent a possible American land assault on Halifax from the Bay of Fundy. There was an American attack on Nova Scotia by land, the Battle of Fort Cumberland followed by the Siege of Saint John (1777). There was also rebellion from those within Nova Scotia: the Maugerville Rebellion (1776) and the Battle at Miramichi (1779).
Naval battle off Halifax (1782)
During the war, American Privateers captured 225 vessels either leaving or arriving at Nova Scotia ports. In 1781, for example, as a result of the Franco-American alliance against Great Britain, there was also a naval engagement with a French fleet at Sydney, Nova Scotia, near Spanish River, Cape Breton. The British also captured numerous American Privateers such as in the naval battle off Halifax. The Royal Navy also used Halifax as a base from which to launch attacks on New England, such as attacks on Maine in the Battle of Machias (1777), later conquering Maine and renaming it New Ireland. Notably, Sir John Moore served at Halifax (1779-1781) and protected New Ireland from American patriot attacks.) At the same time, the towns people and especially seafarers were constantly on-guard of the press gangs of the Royal Navy.
Raid on Lunenburg (1782)
In 1784 the western, mainland portion of the colony was separated and became the province of New Brunswick, and the territory in Maine entered the control of the newly independent American state of Massachusetts. Cape Breton Island became a separate colony in 1784 only to be returned to Nova Scotia in 1820.
As the New England Planters and United Empire Loyalists began to arrive in Mi'kmaki (the Maritimes) in greater numbers, economic, environmental and cultural pressures were put on the Mi'kmaq with the erosion of the intent of the treaties. The Mi'kmaq tried to enforce the treaties through threat of force. At the beginning of the American Revolution, many Mi’kmaq and Maliseet tribes were supportive of the Americans against the British. They participated in the Maugerville Rebellion and the Battle of Fort Cumberland in 1776. (Mí'kmaq delegates concluded the first international treaty, the Treaty of Watertown, with the United States soon after it declared its independence in July 1776. These delegates did not officially represent the Mi'kmaq government, although many individual Mi'kmaq did privately join the Continental army as a result.) During the St. John River expedition, Col. Allan's untiring effort to gain the friendship and support of the Maliseet and Mi'kmaq for the Revolution was somewhat successful. There was a significant exodus of Maliseet from the St John River to join the American forces at Machias, Maine. On Sunday, July 13, 1777, a party of between 400 and 500 men, women, and children, embarked in 128 canoes from the Old Fort Meduetic (8 miles below Woodstock) for Machias. The party arrived at a very opportune moment for the Americans, and afforded material assistance in the defence of that post during the attack made by Sir George Collier on the 13th to 15 August. The British did only minimal damage to the place, and the services of the Indians on the occasion earned for them the thanks of the council of Massachusetts. In June 1779, Mi’kmaq in the Miramichi attacked and plundered some of the British in the area. The following month, British Captain Augustus Harvey, in command of the HMS Viper, arrived in the area and battled with the Mi’kmaq. One Mi’kmaq was killed and 16 were taken prisoner to Quebec. The prisoners were eventually brought to Halifax, where they were later released upon signing the Oath of Allegiance to the British Crown on 28 July 1779.
Nineteenth century[edit source]
Prince of Wales Tower - oldest Martello Tower in North America (1796), Point Pleasant Park, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Napoleonic Wars[edit source]
Halifax was now the bastion of British strength on the East Coast of North America. Local merchants also took advantage of the exclusion of American trade to the British colonies in the Caribbean, beginning a long trade relationship with the West Indies. However, the most significant growth began with the beginning of what would become known as the Napoleonic Wars. Military spending and the opportunities of wartime shipping and trading stimulated growth led by local merchants such as Charles Ramage Prescott and Enos Collins. By 1796, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, was sent to take command of Nova Scotia. Many of the city's forts were designed by him, and he left an indelible mark on the city in the form of many public buildings of Georgian architecture, and a dignified British feel to the city itself. It was during this time that Halifax truly became a city. Many landmarks and institutions were built during his tenure, from the Town Clock on Citadel Hill to St. George's Round Church, fortifications in the Halifax Defence Complex were built up, businesses established, and the population boomed. At the same time, the towns people and especially seafarers were constantly on-guard of the press gangs of the Royal Navy.
Press Gang from the HMS Cleopatra started Halifax Riot (1805). Image by Nicholas Pocock
Halifax Impressment Riot[edit source]
Main article: Impressment (Nova Scotia)
Vice Admiral Andrew Mitchell who orderd the HMS Cleopatra press gang ashore to Halifax
The Navy’s manning problems in Nova Scotia peaked in 1805. Warships were short-handed from high desertion rates, and naval captains were handicapped in filling those vacancies by ;provincial impressment regulations. Desperate for sailors, the Navy pressed them all over the North Atlantic region in 1805, from Halifax and Charlottetown to Saint John and Quebec City. In early May, Vice Admiral Andrew Mitchell sent press gangs from several warships into downtown Halifax. They conscripted men first and asked questions later, rounding up dozens of potential recruits.
The breaking point came in October 1805, when Vice-Admiral Mitchell allowed press gangs from the HMS Cleopatra to storm the streets of Halifax armed with bayonetts, sparking a major riot in which one man was killed and several others were injured. Wentworth lashed out at the admiral for sparking urban unrest and breaking provincial impressment laws, and his government exploited this violent episode to put even tighter restrictions of recruiting in Nova Scotia.
The captured Furieuse is taken in tow to Halifax, Nova Scotia by HMS Bonne Citoyenne (1809), a print by Thomas Whitcombe
Stemming from impressment disturbances, civil-naval relations deteriorated in Nova Scotia from 1805 to the War of 1812. The HMS Whiting was in Liverpool for only about a week, but it terrified the small town the entire time and naval impressment remained a serious threat to sailors along the South Shore. After leaving Liverpool, the Whiting terrorized Shelburne by pressing inhabitants, breaking into homes, and forcing more than a dozen families to live in the forest to avoid further harassment.
War of 1812[edit source]
War of 1812, Halifax, NS: HMS Shannon leading the captured American Frigate USS Chesapeake into Halifax Harbour (1813)
During the War of 1812, Nova Scotia’s contribution to the war effort was communities either purchasing or building various privateer ships to seize American vessels. Three members of the community of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia purchased a privateer schooner and named it Lunenburg on August 8, 1814. The Nova Scotian privateer vessel captured seven American vessels. The Liverpool Packet from Liverpool, Nova Scotia was another Nova Scotia privateer vessel that caught over fifty ships in the war - the most of any privateer in Canada. The Sir John Sherbrooke (Halifax) was also very successful during the war, being the largest privateer on the Atlantic coast. (See Historic Properties (Halifax))
Sir John Coape Sherbrooke - Lt Gov. of Nova Scotia departed Halifax and conquered Maine, renaming the colony New Ireland
Perhaps the most dramatic moment in the war for Nova Scotia was the HMS Shannon's led the captured American Frigate USS Chesapeake into Halifax Harbour (1813). The Captain of the Shannon was injured and Nova Scotian Provo Wallis took command of the ship to escort the Chesapeake to Halifax. Many of the prisoners were kept at Deadman's Island, Halifax. At the same time, there was the HMS Hogue's traumatic capture of the American Privateer Young Teazer off Chester, Nova Scotia.
Gravestones for the casualties of the famous HMS Shannon Capture of USS Chesapeake. The USS Chesapeake (left) and HMS Shannon (right), Stadcona, Halifax, Nova Scotia
On September 3, 1814 a British fleet from Halifax, Nova Scotia, began to lay siege to Maine to re-establish British title to Maine east of the Penobscot River, an area the British had renamed "New Ireland". Carving off "New Ireland" from New England had been a goal of the British government and settlers of Nova Scotia ("New Scotland") since the American Revolution. The British expedition involved 8 war-ships and 10 transports (carrying 3,500 British regulars) that were under the overall command of Sir John Coape Sherbrooke, then Lt. Gov. of Nova Scotia. On July 3, 1814, the expedition captured the coastal town of Castine, Maine and then went on to raid Belfast, Machias, Eastport, Hampden and Bangor(See Battle of Hampden). After the war, Maine was returned to America through the Treaty of Ghent. The brief life of the colony yielded customs revenues, called the "Castine Fund", which were subsequently used to finance a military library in Halifax and found Dalhousie College. Dalhousie University has a street named "Castine Way".
The most famous soldier that was buried in Nova Scotia during the war was Robert Ross (British Army officer). Ross was responsible for the Burning of Washington, including the White House. (Other famous Nova Scotians who served in the war are:George Edward Watts, Sir George Augustus Westphal, Sir Edward Belcher, and Philip Westphal - all of whom are commeorated by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaques at Stadacona, CFB Halifax.)
Crimean War[edit source]
Welsford-Parker Monument, Halifax, Nova Scotia - Only Crimean War Monument in North America
Nova Scotians fought in the Crimean War. The Welsford-Parker Monument in Halifax is the second oldest war monument in Canada and the only Crimean War monument in North America. Another Nova Scotian soldier who fought with distinction during the Crimean war was Sir William Williams, 1st Baronet, of Kars.
Indian Mutiny[edit source]
Nova Scotians also participated in the Indian Mutiny. Two of the most famous were William Hall (VC) and Sir John Eardley Inglis (namesake of Inglis Street, Halifax), both of whom participated in the Siege of Lucknow. The 78th (Highlanders) Regiment of Foot were famous for their involvement with the siege and were later posted to Citadel Hill (Fort George).
American Civil War[edit source]
Over 200 Nova Scotians have been identified as fighting in the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most joined Maine or Massachusetts infantry regiments, but one in ten served the Confederacy (South). The total probably reached into two thousand as many young men had migrated to the U.S. before 1860. Pacifism, neutrality, anti-Americanism, and anti-Yankee sentiments all operated to keep the numbers down, but on the other hand there were strong cash incentives to join the well-paid Northern army and the long tradition of emigrating out of Nova Scotia, combined with a zest for adventure, attracted many young men. Perhaps the two most famous Nova Scotians to fight in the war effort were Benjamin Jackson and John Taylor Wood, the latter becoming a naturalized citizen after the war.
Halifax Provisional Battalion Plaque, Main Gate, Halifax Public Gardens, Halifax, Nova Scotia
The British Empire (including Nova Scotia) declared neutrality, and Nova Scotia prospered greatly from trade with the North. There were no attempts to trade with the South. Nova Scotia was the site of two minor international incidents during the war: the Chesapeake Affair and the escape from Halifax Harbour of the CSS Tallahassee, aided by Confederate sympathizers.
The war left many fearful that the North might attempt to annex British North America, particularly after the Fenian raids began. In response, volunteer regiments were raised across Nova Scotia. British commander and Lt Governor of Nova Scotia Charles Hastings Doyle led 700 troops out of Halifax to crush a Fenian attack on the New Brunswick border with Maine. One of the main reasons why Britain sanctioned the creation of Canada (1867) was to avoid another possible conflict with America and to leave the defence of Nova Scotia to a Canadian Government.
North West Rebellion[edit source]
The Halifax Provisional Battalion was a military unit from Nova Scotia, which was sent to fight in the North-West Rebellion in 1885. The battalion was under command of Lieut.-Colonel James J. Bremner and consisted of 168 non-commissioned officers and men of The Princess Louise Fusiliers, 100 of the 63rd Battalion Rifles, and 84 of the Halifax Garrison Artillery, with 32 officers. The battalion left Halifax under orders for the North-West on Saturday, April 11, 1885, and they stayed for almost three months.
Prior to Nova Scotia's involvement, the province remained hostile to Canada in the aftermath of the how the colony was forced into Canada. The celebration that followed the Halifax Provisional Battalion's return by train across the county ignited a national patriotism in Nova Scotia. Prime Minister Robert Borden, stated that "up to this time Nova Scotia hardly regarded itself as included in the Canadian Confederation.... The rebellion evoked a new sprit.... The Riel Rebellion did more to unite Nova Scotia with the rest of Canada than any event that had occurred since Confderation." Similarly, in 1907 Governor General Earl Grey declared, "This Battalion... went out Nova Scotians, they returned Canadians." The wrought iron gates at the Halifax Public Gardens were made in the Battalion's honour.
Twentieth century[edit source]
Second Boer War[edit source]
South African War Memorial (Halifax) by Hamilton MacCarthy, Province House, Nova Scotia
During the Second Boer War (1899–1902), the First Contingent was composed of seven Companies from across Canada. The Nova Scotia Company (H) consisted of 125 men. (The total First Contingent was a total force of 1,019. Eventually over 8600 Canadians served.) The mobilization of the Contingent took place at Quebec. On October 30, 1899, the ship Sardinian sailed the troops for four weeks to Cape Town. The Boer War marked the first occasion in which large contingents of Nova Scotian troops served abroad (individual Nova Scotians had served in the Crimean War). The Battle of Paardeberg in February 1900 represented the second time Canadian soldiers saw battle abroad (the first being the Canadian involvement in the Nile Expedition). Canadians also saw action at the Battle of Faber's Put on May 30, 1900. On November 7, 1900, the Royal Canadian Dragoons engaged the Boers in the Battle of Leliefontein, where they saved British guns from capture during a retreat from the banks of the Komati River. Approximately 267 Canadians died in the War. 89 men were killed in action, 135 died of disease, and the remainder died of accident or injury. 252 were wounded.
Boer War Victory Parade, Barrington Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Of all the Canadians who died during the war, the most famous was the young Lt. Harold Lothrop Borden of Canning, Nova Scotia. Harold Borden's father was Sir Frederick W. Borden, Canada's Minister of Militia who was a strong proponent of Canadian participation in the war. Another famous Nova Scotian casualty of the war was Charles Carroll Wood, son of the renoun Confederate naval captain John Taylor Wood and the first Canadian to die in the war.
First World War[edit source]
Sinking of the HMHS Llandovery Castle
The prime minister of Canada during the war was Nova Scotian Robert Borden.
During World War I, Halifax became a major international port and naval facility. The harbour became a major shipment point for war supplies, troop ships to Europe from Canada and the United States and hospital ships returning the wounded. These factors drove a major military, industrial and residential expansion of the city. On 27 June 1917, a German U-boat torpedoed a hospital ship from the port of Halifax named the HMHS Llandovery Castle. Escaping lifeboats were pursued and sunk by the German U-boat and the survivors machine-gunned. Of the crew totalling 258, only twenty-four survived. The nursing Matron on board was a Nova Scotian, Margaret Marjory Fraser (daughter of Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia Duncan Cameron Fraser). She died along with the 13 nurses under her command.
On Thursday, December 6, 1917, when the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, was devastated by the huge detonation of a French cargo ship, fully loaded with wartime explosives, that had accidentally collided with a Norwegian ship in "The Narrows" section of the Halifax Harbour. Approximately 2,000 people (mostly Canadians) were killed by debris, fires, or collapsed buildings, and it is estimated that over 9,000 people were injured. This is still the world's largest man-made accidental explosion.
During World War I the British Army used Fort Edward in Windsor to establish a training depot for Jewish men training to fight against the Ottoman Turks in Palestine. Known as The Jewish Legion, this unit, was "stood up" for service in 1917 manned by Jews from around the world who came to Windsor for training on the slopes of the fort under Major W.F.D Bremner. Bremner lived in Castle Fredericks and is an ancestor of Falmouth’s James Bremner (See Halifax Provisional Battalion). Pictures and first-hand accounts of the time indicate that the men lived in tents on the hillside below the blockhouse.
Jewish Legion, Fort Edward (Nova Scotia), (Yom Kippur, 1918)
Many of these recruits came with Zionist ideals and dreams of a restored Palestinian homeland for the Jews. 1,100 Non-commissioned officers were trained in Windsor, Nova Scotia. Founders of the League included David Ben-Gurion, who became the first prime minister of Israel, and Ze'ev Jabotinsky, both men were trained at Fort Edward. At age 70, David Ben-Gurion reported on his time at Fort Edward: "I will never forget Windsor where I received my first training as a soldier and where I became a corporal."
The Amherst Internment Camp was one of three internment camps in the province. It existed from 1914 to 1919 in Amherst, Nova Scotia. It was the largest POW camp in Canada during World War I; a maximum of 853 prisoners were housed at one time at the old Malleable Iron foundry on the corner of Hickman and Park Streets. The most famous prisoner of war at the camp was Leon Trotsky.
Three Nova Scotian battalions saw combat in Europe as distinct fighting units - The Royal Canadian Regiment, 85th Battalion and 25th Battalion. The Royal Canadian Regiment, based in Halifax, was the only unit in existence at the time of the war's outbreak.
The No. 2 Construction Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), was the only predominantly black battalion in Canadian military history and also the only Canadian Battalion composed of black soldiers to serve in World War I. The battalion was raised in Nova Scotia. 56% of the battalion was from Nova Scotia (500 soldiers).
Second World War[edit source]
Winston Churchill by Oscar Nemon, Halifax, Nova Scotia
During World War II, thousands of Nova Scotians went overseas. One Nova Scotian, Mona Louise Parsons, joined the Dutch resistance and was eventually captured and imprisoned by the Nazis for almost four years.
From the start of the war in 1939 until VE Day, several of Canada's Atlantic coast ports became important to the resupply effort for the United Kingdom and later for the Allied land offensive on the Western Front. Halifax and Sydney, Nova Scotia became the primary convoy assembly ports, with Halifax being assigned the fast or priority convoys (largely troops and essential material) with the more modern merchant ships, while Sydney was given slow convoys which conveyed bulkier material on older and more vulnerable merchant ships. Both ports were heavily fortified with shore radar emplacements, search light batteries, and extensive coastal artillery stations all manned by RCN and Canadian Army regular and reserve personnel. Military intelligence agents enforced strict blackouts throughout the areas and anti-torpedo nets were in place at the harbor entrances. Despite the fact that no landings of German personnel took place near these ports, there were frequent attacks by U-boats on convoys departing for Europe. Less extensively used, but no less important, was the port of Saint John which also saw matériel funneled through the port, largely after the United States entered the war in December 1941. The Canadian Pacific Railway mainline from central Canada (which crossed the state of Maine) could be used to transport in aid of the war effort.
SS Point Pleasant Park Monument, Point Pleasant Park, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Although not crippling to the Canadian war effort, given the country's rail network to the east coast ports, but possibly more destructive to the morale of the Canadian public, was the Battle of the St. Lawrence, when U-boats began to attack domestic coastal shipping along Canada's east coast in the St. Lawrence River and Gulf of St. Lawrence from early 1942 through to the end of the shipping season in late 1944.
SS Caribou was a Newfoundland Railway passenger ferry that ran between Port aux Basques, in the Dominion of Newfoundland, and North Sydney, Nova Scotia between 1928—1942. It became infamous when it was attacked and sunk by Nazi German submarine U-69 in October 1942, while traversing the Cabot Strait as part of its three weekly SPAB convoys. As a civilian vessel, it had women and children on board, and many of them were among the 137 who died. Its sinking, and large death toll, made it clear that the war had really arrived on Canada's and Newfoundland's home front, and is cited by many historians as the most significant sinking in Canadian-controlled waters during the Second World War.
Several RN escorts were attached to the RCN for some months during 1942, with convoys in the St. Lawrence River and Gulf of St. Lawrence being formed between RCN facilities at HMCS Chaleur II in Quebec City, HMCS Fort Ramsay in Gaspé, and HMCS Protector in Sydney. Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) aircraft carried out operational patrols from RCAF stations such as Charlottetown, Summerside, Debert, Stanley and Sydney as well as various civilian fields, particularly in the Magdalen Islands.
Leonard W. Murray Plaque Halifax Nova Scotia - on the corner of South St. and Barrington St
Leonard W. Murray was born at Granton, Nova Scotia on 22 June 1896. Rear Admiral Leonard Warren Murray, CB, CBE was an officer of the Royal Canadian Navy who played a significant role in the Battle of the Atlantic. He commanded the Newfoundland Escort Force from 1941–1943, and from 1943 to the end of the war was Commander-in-Chief, Canadian Northwest Atlantic. He was the only Canadian to command an Allied theatre of operations during World War I or World War II. He resigned his command early as a result of the Halifax VE-Day Riot.
Korean War[edit source]
During the Korean War there were 48 Nova Scotians who died in the war and more than 100 were wounded. (See Atlantic Canada Korean War Monument and Cape Breton Korean War Monument). The only Nova Scotian who was a member of the Royal Canadian Navy to die was Robert John Moore. He was killed while in an air crash. He was awarded the United Nations Service Medal (Korea) and is commemorated on the Korean War Memorial at the Naval Museum of Alberta at HMCS Tecumseh, Calgary, Alberta.
Notable Nova Scotian military figures[edit source]
The following list includes those who were born in Nova Scotia, Acadia and Mi'kma'ki or those who became naturalized citizens. Those who came for brief periods from other countries are not included (e.g. John Gorham, Edward Cornwallis, James Wolfe, Boishébert, Thomas Pichon, etc.)
17th-18th centuries[edit source]
Charles de Menou d'Aulnay - Acadian Civil War
Françoise-Marie Jacquelin - Civil War in Acadia
Baron de St. Castin - Castin's War
Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville - Queen Anne's War
Father Sébastien Rale - Father Rale's War
Captain Charles Morris - King Georges War
Chief Jean-Baptiste Cope - Father Le Loutre's War
Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre- Father Le Loutre's War
Father Pierre Maillard - Father Le Loutre's War
Joseph Broussard (Beausoleil) - Father Le Loutre's War
Charles Lawrence - Father Le Loutre's War
Jonathan Eddy - American Revolution
Major General John Small, Commander, 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) - American Revolution
See also[edit source]
Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour - Acadian Civil War
Chief Madockawando - King William's War
John Gyles - King William's War
Father Louis-Pierre Thury– King William's War
Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste - Queen Anne's War
Charles Morris (jurist) - King George's War
Joseph-Nicolas Gautier - Father Le Loutre's War
Pierre II Surette - French and Indian War
John Allan (colonel) - American Revolution
19th century[edit source]
Commander John Houlton Marshall --Battle of Trafalgar, Province House (Nova Scotia)
George Augustus Westphal - Battle of Trafalgar, Admiralty Garden, Stadacona, CFB Halifax, Nova Scotia
Sir John Coape Sherbrooke - Lt Gov. of Nova Scotia -War of 1812
Provo Wallis - War of 1812
John Charles Beckwith (army officer) - Battle of Waterloo
Edward Belcher by Stephen Pearce - Franklin's lost expedition
Sir William Williams, 1st Baronet, of Kars by William Gush - Crimean War
Major Augustus F. Welsford - Crimean War
Captain William B.C.A. Parker - Crimean War
John Wimburn Laurie - Crimean War
Nova Scotian Sir John Eardley Inglis by William Gush - Indian Mutiny
William Hall (VC) - Indian Mutiny
John Taylor Wood - American Civil War
Lt Gov of Nova Scotia Charles Hastings Doyle - Fenian Raids
Lieutenant-Colonel James J. Bremner - Northwest Rebellion
Clonard Keating - Nigeria, Plaque, Halifax Public Gardens, Nova Scotia
William Grant Stairs - Africa
Also see Benjamin Jackson (soldier) - American Civil War 20th century[edit source]
Harold Lothrop Borden- Second Boer War, Borden Monument, Canning, Nova Scotia
Francis Joseph Fitzgerald - Second Boer War, Fitzgerald Bridge in Halifax Public Gardens
Margaret Marjory Fraser -World War I
Walter Harris Callow -World War I, disabled veterans advocate
Philip Bent, VC - World War I
John Bernard Croak, VC - World War I
John Chipman Kerr, VC - World War I
James Peter Robertson, VC - World War I
Mona Louise Parsons - World War II
Leonard W. Murray - World War II
Nova Scotian Victoria Cross Recipients[edit source]
This along with the *, indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously
Name Date of action Conflict Unit Place of action Province of origin Notes
Philip Bent 1917* First World War The Leicestershire Regiment Polygon Wood, Belgium Nova Scotia
John Croak 1918* First World War 13th Battalion, CEF Amiens, France Nova Scotia
William Hall 1857 Indian Mutiny HMS Shannon Lucknow, India Nova Scotia
John Kerr 1916 First World War 49th Battalion, CEF Courcelette, France Nova Scotia
James Robertson 1917* First World War 27th Battalion, CEF Passchendaele, Belgium Nova Scotia
See also[edit source]
The Nova Scotia Highlanders
Maritime Command Museum
Treaty Day (Nova Scotia)
History of the Halifax Regional Municipality
Portal icon Nova Scotia portal
1.^ The colonial history of Nova Scotia includes the present-day Canadian Maritime provinces and the northern part of Maine (Sunbury County, Nova Scotia), all of which were at one time part of Nova Scotia. In 1763 Cape Breton Island and St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province was established in 1784. (In 1765, the county of Sunbury was created, and included the territory of present-day New Brunswick and eastern Maine as far as the Penobscot River.)
2.^ a b William Williamson. The history of the state of Maine. Vol. 2. 1832. p. 27
3.^ Also, that same year, French fishermen established a settlement at Canso.
4.^ Brenda Dunn. A History of Port Royal, Annapolis Royal: 1605-1800. Nimbus Publishing, 2004
5.^ Nicholls, Andrew. A Fleeting Empire: Early Stuart Britain and the Merchant Adventures to Canada. McGill-Queen's University Press. 2010.
6.^ M. A. MacDonald, Fortune & La Tour: The civil war in Acadia, Toronto: Methuen. 1983
7.^ Brenda Dunn, p. 19
8.^ Brenda Dunn. A History of Port Royal, Annapolis Royal: 1605-1800. Nimbus Publishing, 2004. p. 20
10.^ John Reid. "Imperial Intrusions". In Buckner and Reid (eds). The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History. University of Toronto Press. 1994.p. 84
11.^ Harry Piers, "Regiments Raised in Nova Scotia," Nova Scotia Historical Society (1927)
12.^ Grenier, p. 56
13.^ Beamish Murdoch. History of Nova Scotia or Acadia, p. 399
14.^ A history of Nova-Scotia, or Acadie, Volume 1, by Beamish Murdoch, p. 398
15.^ The Nova Scotia theatre of the Dummer War is named the "Mi'kmaq-Maliseet War" by John Grenier. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia 1710-1760. University of Oklahoma Press. 2008.
16.^ Beamish Murdoch. A history of Nova-Scotia, or Acadie, Volume 1, p. 399; Geoffery Plank, An Unsettled Conquest, p. 78
17.^ Benjamin Church, p. 289; John Grenier, p. 62
18.^ Faragher, John Mack, A Great and Noble Scheme New York; W. W. Norton & Company, 2005. pp. 164-165.; Beamish Murdoch. A History of Nova Scotia or Acadie. Vol. 1. pp. 408-409
19.^ Brenda Dunn, p. 123
20.^ Brenda Dunn, pp. 124-125
21.^ Haynes, Mark. The Forgotten Battle: A History of the Acadians of Canso/ Chedabuctou. British Columbia: Trafford. 2004, p. 159
22.^ William Wicken. Mi'kmaq Treaties on Trial. 2002. pp. 72-72.
23.^ The framework Father Le Loutre's War is developed by John Grenier in his books The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. (University of Oklahoma Press, 2008) and The first way of war: American war making on the frontier, 1607-1814 (Cambridge University Press, 2005). He outlines his rational for naming these conflicts as Father Le Loutre's War; Thomas Beamish Akins. History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002 edition). p 7
24.^ Wicken, p. 181; Griffith, p. 390; Also see http://www.northeastarch.com/vieux_logis.html
25.^ a b John Grenier. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Oklahoma University Press.
26.^ John Grenier, Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia 1710-1760. Oklahoma Press. 2008
27.^ Stephen E. Patterson. "Indian-White Relations in Nova Scotia, 1749-61: A Study in Political Interaction." Buckner, P, Campbell, G. and Frank, D. (eds). The Acadiensis Reader Vol 1: Atlantic Canada Before Confederation. 1998. pp.105-106.; Also see Stephen Patterson, Colonial Wars and Aboriginal Peoples, p. 144.
28.^ Ronnie-Gilles LeBlanc (2005). Du Grand Dérangement à la Déportation: Nouvelles Perspectives Historiques, Moncton: Université de Moncton, 465 pages ISBN 1-897214-02-2 (book in French and English). The Acadians were scattered across the Atlantic, in the Thirteen Colonies, Louisiana, Quebec, Britain and France. (See Jean-François Mouhot (2009) Les Réfugiés acadiens en France (1758-1785): L'Impossible Réintégration?, Quebec, Septentrion, 456 p. ISBN 2-89448-513-1; Ernest Martin (1936) Les Exilés Acadiens en France et leur établissement dans le Poitou, Paris, Hachette, 1936). Very few eventually returned to Nova Scotia. See Faragher (2005)
29.^ Faragher 2005, p. 338
30.^ a b John Grenier. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Oklahoma University Press. 2008
31.^ John Grenier, p. 184
32.^ Winthrop Bell. Foreign Protestants, University of Toronto, 1961, p. 504; Peter Landry. The Lion and the Lily, Trafford Press. 2007.p. 555
33.^ John Grenier, The Far Reaches of Empire, Oklahoma Press. 2008. p. 198
34.^ Marshall, p. 98; see also Bell. Foreign Protestants. p. 512
35.^ Marshall, p. 98; Peter Landry. The Lion and the Lily, Trafford Press. 2007. p. 555
36.^ Earle Lockerby, The Expulsion of the Acadians from Prince Edward Island. Nimbus Publications. 2009
37.^ Plank, p. 160
38.^ John Grenier, p. 197
39.^ Grenier, p. 198; Faragher, p. 402.
40.^ Grenier, p. 198
41.^ John Grenier. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760, Oklahoma University Press.pp. 199-200. Note that Faragher (2005), p 405 indicates that Monckton had a force of 2000 men for this campaign.
42.^ a b John Grenier. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760, Oklahoma University Press. 2008, pp. 199-200
43.^ a b John Grenier. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Oklahoma University Press, p. 202; Also see Plank, p. 61
44.^ A letter from Fort Frederick which was printed in Parker’s New York Gazette or Weekly Post-Boy on 2 April 1759 provides some additional details of the behavior of the Rangers. Also see William O. Raymond. The River St. John: Its Physical Features, Legends and History from 1604 to 1784. St. John, New Brunswick. 1910. pp. 96-107
45.^ J.S. McLennan, Louisbourg: From its Founding to its Fall, Macmillan and Co. Ltd London, UK 1918, pp. 417-423, Appendix 11 (see http://www.archive.org/stream/louisbourgfromit00mcleuoft/louisbourgfromit00mcleuoft_djvu.txt)
46.^ Lockerby, 2008, p.17, p.24, p.26, p.56
47.^ Faragher 2005, p. 414; also see History: Commodore Byron's Conquest. The Canadian Press. July 19, 2008 http://www.acadian.org/La%20Petite-Rochelle.html
48.^ John Grenier, p. 211; Faragher 2005, p. 41; see the account of Captain Mackenzie's raid at MacKenzie's Raid
49.^ Patterson, 1994, p. 153; Brenda Dunn, p. 207
50.^ Griffith, 2005, p. 438
51.^ Faragher, p. 423–424
52.^ John Gorham. The Far Reaches of Empire: War In Nova Scotia (1710-1760). University of Oklahoma Press. 2008. p. 177-206
53.^ Patterson, Stephen E. 1744-1763: Colonial Wars and Aboriginal Peoples. In Phillip Buckner and John Reid (eds.) The Atlantic Region to Conderation: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1994. p. 148
54.^ a b Faragher 2005, pp. 110
55.^ The journal of John Weatherspoon was published in Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society for the Years 1879-1880 (Halifax 1881) that has since been reprinted (Mika Publishing Company, Belleville, Ontario, 1976).
56.^ Winthrop Bell, Foreign Protestants, University of Toronto. 1961. p.503
57.^ Faragher 2005, p. 398.
58.^ Webster as cited by bluepete, p. 371
59.^ John Faragher.Great and Noble Scheme. Norton. 2005. p. 398.
60.^ John Grenier, p. 190; New Brunswick Military Project
61.^ John Grenier, p. 195
62.^ Faragher 2005, p. 410
63.^ New Brunswick Military Project
64.^ John Grenier. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760, Oklahoma University Press.pp. 199–200
65.^ Bell Foreign Protestants. p. 508
66.^ Harry Chapman, p. 32; Faragher 2005, p. 410
67.^ William Williamson. The history of the state of Maine. Vol. 2. 1832. p. 311-112; During this time period, the Maliseet and Mi'kmaq were the only tribes of the Wabanaki Confederacy who were able to right.
68.^ Phyllis E. Leblanc, Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online; Cyrus Eaton's history, p. 77; William Durkee Williamson, The history of the state of Maine: from its first discovery, A. D ..., Volume 2, p. 333 (Williamson's Book)
69.^ a b Archibald McMechan, Red Snow of Grand Pre. 1931. p. 192
70.^ Bell, p. 509
71.^ Bell. Foreign Protestants. p. 510, p. 513
72.^ Bell, p. 510
73.^ Bell, Foreign Protestants, p. 511
74.^ Bell, p. 511
75.^ Bell, p. 512
76.^ Bell, p. 513
77.^ J.S. McLennan. Louisbourg: From its foundation to its fall (1713-1758). 1918, p. 190
78.^ Earle Lockerby. Pre-Deportation Letters from Ile Saint Jean. Les Cahiers. La Societe hitorique acadienne. Vol. 42, No2. June 2011. pp. 99-100
79.^ Beamish Murdoch. History of Nova Scotia. Vol.2. p. 366
80.^ Cite error: The named reference bio was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
81.^ Barry Cahill, "The Treason of the Merchants: Dissent and Repression in Halifax in the Era of the American Revolution," Acadiensis 1996 26(1): 52-70; G. Stewart, and G. Rawlyk, A People Highly Favoured of God: The Nova Scotia Yankees and the American Revolution (1972); Maurice Armstrong, "Neutrality and Religion in Revolutionary Nova Scotia," The New England Quarterly v19, no. 1 (1946): 50-62 in JSTOR
82.^ Benjamin Franklin also engaged France in the war, which meant that many of the privateers were also from France.
83.^ Roger Marsters (2004). Bold Privateers: Terror, Plunder and Profit on Canada's Atlantic Coast" , p. 87-89.
84.^ Lieutenant Governor Sir Richard Hughes stated in a dispatch to Lord Germaine that "rebel cruisers" made the attack.
85.^ Julian Gwyn. Frigates and Foremasts. University of British Columbia. 2003. p. 56
86.^ Thomas B. Akins. (1895) History of Halifax. Dartmouth: Brook House Press.p. 82
87.^ Hannay, p. 119
88.^ Rev. W. O. Raymond
89.^ http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?id_nbr=2486; Sessional papers, Volume 5 By Canada. Parliament July 2 - September 22, 1779; Wilfred Brenton Kerr. The Maritime Provinces of British North America and the American Revolution. p. 96
90.^ Among the annual festivals of the old times, now lost sight of, was the celebration of St. Aspinquid's Day, known as the Indian Saint. St. Aspinquid appeared in the Nova Scotia almanacks from 1774 to 1786. The festival was celebrated on or immediately after the last quarter of the moon in the month of May. The tide being low at that time, many of the principal inhabitants of the town, on these occasions, assembled on the shore of the North West Arm and partook of a dish of clam soup, the clams being collected on the spot at low water. There is a tradition that during the American troubles when agents of the revolted colonies were active to gain over the good people of Halifax, in the year 1786, were celebrating St. Aspinquid, the wine having been circulated freely, the Union Jack was suddenly hauled down and replaced by the Stars and Stripes. This was soon reversed, but all those persons who held public offices immediately left the grounds, and St. Aspinquid was never after celebrated at Halifax. (See Akins. History of Halifax, p. 218, note 94
91.^ Mercer, p. 232
92.^ Mercer, p. 236
93.^ Thomas B. Akins, History of Halifax City (Halifax, 1895), 137–8; Brian C. Cuthbertson, The Loyalist Governor: Biography of Sir John Wentworth (Halifax: Petheric, 1983), 132–4; Executive Council Minutes, 23 Nov. 1805, 161–2, vol. 191, RG1, nsarm; John George Marshall, A Brief History of Public Proceedings and Events, Legal – Parliamentary –and Miscellaneous, in the Province of Nova Scotia, during the Earliest Years of the Present Century (Halifax, 1879), 22–4.
94.^ Mercer, p. 235
95.^ John Boileau. Half-hearted Enemies: Nova Scotia, New England and the War of 1812. Halifax: Formac Publishing. 2005. p.53
96.^ C.H.J.Snider, Under the Red Jack: privateers of the Maritime Provinces of Canada in the War of 1812 (London: Martin Hopkinson & Co. Ltd, 1928), 225-258 (see http://www.1812privateers.org/Ca/canada.htm#LG)
97.^ a b John Boileau. 2005. Half-hearted Enemies: Nova Scotia: New England and the War of 1812. Formac Press
98.^ Seymour, p. 10
99.^ Tom Seymour, Tom Seymour's Maine: A Maine Anthology (2003), pp. 10-17
101.^ D.C. Harvey, "The Halifax–Castine expedition," Dalhousie Review, 18 (1938–39): 207–13.
102.^ Greg Marquis, "Mercenaries or Killer Angels? Nova Scotians in the American Civil War," Collections of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society, 1995, Vol. 44, pp 83-94
103.^ Greg Marquis, In Armageddon’s Shadow: The Civil War and Canada’s Maritime Provinces . McGill-Queen’s University Press. 1998.
104.^ Marquis, In Armageddon’s Shadow
105.^ The history of the North-west rebellion of 1885: Comprising a full and ... By Charles Pelham Mulvany, Louis Riel, p. 410
106.^ David A. Sutherland. "Halifax Encounter with the North-West Uprising of 1885". Journal of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society. Vol. 13, 2010. p. 73
107.^ Canadian War Museum (2008). "Battle of Paardeberg". Canadian War Museum. Retrieved 2008-05-10.[dead link]
108.^ Canadian War Museum (2008). "Battle of Faber's Put". Canadian War Museum. Retrieved 2008-05-10.[dead link]
109.^ Canadian War Museum (2008). "Battle of Leliefontein". Canadian War Museum. Retrieved 2008-05-10.[dead link]
111.^ John Bell. Confederate Seadog: John Taylor Wood in War and Exile. McFarland Publishers. 2002. p. 59
112.^ The Halifax Explosion and the Royal Canadian Navy John Armstrong, University of British Columbia Press, 2002, p.10-11.
114.^ CBC - Halifax Explosion 1917
115.^ Jay White, "Exploding Myths: The Halifax Explosion in Historical Context", Ground Zero: A Reassessment of the 1917 explosion in Halifax Alan Ruffman and Colin D. Howell editors, Nimbus Publishing (1994), p. 266
116.^ a b The Valley Today: Independent News for the Annapolis Valley January 07
118.^ Tennyson & Sarty (2000), pp. 274-275.
121.^ "Search Details – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
122.^ "John Bernard Croak". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
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Main article: Bibliography of Nova Scotia
Doughty, Arthur G. (1916). The Acadian Exiles. A Chronicle of the Land of Evangeline, Toronto: Glasgow, Brook & Co. 178 pages
Douglas, W. A. B. The Sea Militia of Nova Scotia, 1749-1755: A Comment on Naval Policy. The Canadian Historical Review. Vol. XLVII, No.1. 1966. 22-37
Dunn, Brenda, A History of Port-Royal/Annapolis Royal 1605-1800, Halifax: Nimbus, 2004 ISBN 1-55109-740-0
Edwards, Joseph Plimsoll. The Militia of Nova Scotia, 1749-1867. Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society. Vol. 17 (1913). pp. 63–110.
Faragher, John Mack (2005). A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians from their American Homeland, New York: W.W. Norton, 562 pages ISBN 0-393-05135-8
Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 2008. pp. 154–155
John Grenier. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Oklahoma University Press. 2008 ISBN 978-0-8061-3876-3
Griffiths, Naomi Elizabeth Saundaus. From Migrant to Acadian: A North American border people, 1604-1755. Montreal, Kingston: McGill-Queen's UP, 2005.
Griffiths, E. From Migrant to Acadian. McGill-Queen's University Press. 2005 ISBN 0-7735-2699-4
Griffiths, N.E.S. (1969). The Acadian deportation: deliberate perfidy or cruel necessity?, Toronto: Copp Clark Pub. Co., 165 p.
Johnston, John. The Acadian Deportation in a Comparative Context: An Introduction. Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society: The Journal. 2007. pp. 114–131
Landry, Peter. The Lion & The Lily. Vol. 1. Victoria: Trafford, 2007.
Moody, Barry (1981). The Acadians, Toronto: Grolier. 96 pages ISBN 0-7172-1810-4
Murdoch, Beamish. A History of Nova Scotia, Or Acadia. Vol 2. LaVergne: BiblioBazaar, 2009. pp. 166–167
Patterson, Stephen E. 1744-1763: Colonial Wars and Aboriginal Peoples. In Phillip Buckner and John Reid (eds.) The Atlantic Region to Conderation: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1994. pp. 125–155
Patterson, Stephen E. "Indian-White Relations in Nova Scotia, 1749-61: A Study in Political Interaction." Buckner, P, Campbell, G. and Frank, D. (eds). The Acadiensis Reader Vol 1: Atlantic Canada Before Confederation. 1998. pp. 105–106.
Patterson, Stephen E. 1744-1763: Colonial Wars and Aboriginal Peoples. In Phillip Buckner and John Reid (eds.) The Atlantic Region to Conderation: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1994. pp. 125–155
Rompkey, Ronald, ed. Expeditions of Honour: The Journal of John Salusbury in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1749-53. Newark: U of Delaware P, Newark, 1982.
Webster, John Clarence. The career of the Abbé Le Loutre in Nova Scotia (Shediac, N.B., 1933),
Wicken, William. Mi'kmaq Treaties on Trial: History, Land, and Donald Marshall Junior. University of Toronto Press. 2002.
John G. Reid. The 'Conquest' of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial, an Aboriginal Constructions University of Toronto Press. 2004 ISBN 0-8020-3755-0
Geoffrey Plank, An Unsettled Conquest. University of Pennsylvania. 2001 ISBN 0-8122-1869-8